Cultural Ecosystem Services valuation and kaitiakitanga for Auckland stream corridors

In New Zealand the integration of the mauri of the environment and concepts of kaitiakitanga with regards to Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) strengthens the human-nature interaction. It protects the wellbeing of the environment through an inherent connection between people, water and the natural environment. This research assesses how the core value of CES can be defined with mātauranga Māori  and principles of the tikanga Māori to achieve valid non-monetary valuation indicators. We also consider how the values of the cultural ecosystem have changed over time due to urbanization and land degradation in Oakley Creek in Auckland-New Zealand. This research enables a better understanding of Te Ao Māori for the conceptualization of the cultural ecosystem values and operationalization of the valuation indicators related to the cultural capital that the decision-makers and researchers should take into consideration when implementing the participatory–based Assessment of Environmental Effects (AEE).